Keynote Speakers

Dr Thuli N. Khumalo​​

Deputy Director-General Climate Change and Air Quality Management Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environments

Dr Thuli N. Khumalo, is the South African National Air Quality Officer with more than ten years work experience in air quality management. She is responsible for coordinating matters pertaining to air quality management in national government, including identification, development, and implementation and monitoring of national policies, strategies, norms, standards and action-plans aimed at continuous improvement of air quality in the republic.

Keynote Title: State of Air in South Africa: 2021 Reports

Abstract – The purpose of State of Air for South Africa, 2021 is to give an overview of the state of air quality in the country, providing insight into the sources of emissions, and their associated health, welfare, and broader environmental effects. The report summarizes current status of ambient air quality nationally, management practices, developments in legislation as well as exploring opportunities for reducing emissions and improving the quality of the air. In characterizing the national state of air quality, reference is made to air quality monitoring data for over 120 stations across the country. The report focuses mainly on two criteria pollutants, PM10 and SO2. A summary of industrial emissions inventories is also presented based on emissions from 2019. Highlights of major programmes and new developments on various interventions to improve air quality in South Africa are shared. Finally, future air quality management developments will be presented for stakeholders to take note of, especially changes in the legislation.

Zbigniew Klimont

Research Leader Pollution Management Group, Energy, Climate and Environment programme (ECE) International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria

Dr Zbigniew Klimont is a Research Group Leader of the Pollution Management group in the Energy, Climate and Environment program at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). IIASA has developed the integrated assessment framework GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) to explore the synergies and trade-offs between the control of local and regional air pollution and the mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions. GAINS has been used in regional and global studies, e.g., assessment of short-lived climate forces mitigation potential and contribution to development of air pollution storylines for the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) used in the IPCC work and beyond. Zig Klimont has a degree in environmental engineering and has been working on the development and assessment of regional and global emissions of various air pollutants and the mid-term scenarios. He has authored and co-authored over a 100 peer reviewed papers, was a contributing author or lead author to the IPCC WGI AR5 and WGI and WGIII AR6, lead author on a number of UNEP global and regional climate and air pollution assessments as well as Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) Assessments.

The GAINS model framework for development of cost-effective air quality strategies at various scales, considering climate and air quality policy linkages

Abstract – Air pollution knows no borders, neither national nor regional, and the often exercised strategy of addressing urban air quality with local measures only is typically delivering less than promised. Poor air quality is a result of a cocktail of primary and secondary pollutants, the latter produced from emissions of precursor gases like SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3 with different lifetimes. Thus, sources far away from receptor can be still very important contributors to ambient PM2.5 or ozone.

Chemical transport models capture well such atmospheric interactions and can represent well actual ambient measurements. However, they are computationally intensive and therefore, rather impractical for analysis of many scenarios. Furthermore, they also miss explicit representation of policies, mitigation technologies and their costs – elements necessary for the effective dialogue with policy makers and other stakeholders. Integrated assessment models include these and, in combination with atmospheric models, can provide a powerful framework for a robust analysis of several scenarios and development of solutions to meet environmental and health impact related targets.

The Greenhouse Gas – Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model developed at IIASA is one such model. It has been successfully applied in Europe and Asia, even at subnational levels including megacities, in support of policy processes addressing local and regional air quality. The paper shows examples of model applications at different scales highlighting the importance of regional collaboration to improve feasibility and cost-efficiency of reaching ambitious air quality targets. Additionally, since most of the pollution sources also emit greenhouse gases, climate policies such as NDCs will result in co-benefits for air quality. Conversely, air quality and development strategies could bring important climate benefits. GAINS allows for analysis of such co-benefits as well as trade-offs – examples will be presented for selected regions. GAINS application is under development of the JET region in South Africa.

Prof. Francois Engelbrecht

University of the Witwatersrand, Global Change Institute,
Keynote Title: “The IPCC Assessment Report Six: Key Findings And Implications For Southern Africa”

Francois Engelbrecht is a Distinguished Professor of Climatology at the Global Change Institute of the University of the Witwatersrand. He specializes in climate model development and the simulation of African climate variability and change, and leads the development of an African-based Earth System Model. Engelbrecht’s research has led to new insights into the changing temperature, rainfall and circulation patterns over the continent under anthropogenic forcing. He served as an invited Lead Author of the IPCC’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC. published in 2018, and currently serves as an invited Lead Author of Assessment Report Six of the IPCC. He is an invited member of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation of the World Climate Change Research Program (WCRP), co-chair of the World Meteorological Organisation Joint Expert Team on Earth System Implementation and a Scientific Steering Group Member of CLIVAR of the World Climate
Research Programme.

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Mr Keketsi Ramahali Profile.

Specialist in Flue Gas Desulphurization, Air Quality Control, Eskom
Keynote Title: Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) System at the Kusile Power Station

Keketsi Ramahali is an internationally acclaimed publisher and award winning professional Chemical Engineer, currently working for Eskom as a specialist in Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) systems under Air Quality Control (Process Design Engineering) with almost 10 years’ experience in the Power Generation Sector.


He has a publication obtained in France Marseille, at the VGB PowerTech Flue Gas Cleaning Workshop and he is registered as a professional engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), where he also assesses, moderates and interviews Chemical Engineering candidates for professional registration. Keketsi is also a member of the South African Institute of Chemical Engineers (SAiCHE) and has been recognized for his social contributions outside of the professional environment by being awarded an Eskom “Sinobunthu Award”.


Keketsi has been a critical team member as Project Lead Process Design Engineer in the execution of Eskom’s first FGD Plant on a super-critical Boiler(s) in South Africa, and the largest on the African continent. He has a broad experience in the Power Generation sector which ranges from systems in Water Treatment, Boilers and Air Quality Control. Under Air Quality Control, Keketsi has undertaken practical design developments and training with international design and project management companies, and he has led numerous projects in various FGD technology designs, Research Testing and Development (RT&D) initiatives and key stakeholder engagements, both internal and external to Eskom. He is currently leading the FGD Process Design aspects in design development, construction, commissioning, performance testing, operation and maintenance support.

Keketsi will be presenting on a brief overview of Flue Gas Desulphurization systems and will take the listener through some key experiences obtained through the execution of Eskom’s first Flue Gas Desulphurization Plant at Kusile Power Station.

Dr Gary Kleiman

Senior Environmental Specialist, World Bank Group
Keynote Title: World Bank’s Pollution Management and Environmental program to stimulate evidence based air quality management in Africa

Gary Kleiman is a senior environmental specialist at the World Bank Group focused on air quality and climate planning for state and national governments. Gary has worked extensively on issues related to various aspects of regional and global air quality, energy infrastructure and climate policy, and fiscal policies and incentives for achieving low-carbon economic development. While at NESCAUM, Gary directed efforts to develop and incorporate a variety of complementary models into an integrated assessment framework for examining the environmental, economic, and public health consequences of various policy options. He is currently working with the World Bank Climate Policy and Finance Department on efforts to harmonize greenhouse gas emissions accounting practices across the sectors and institutions of the World Bank Group and developing a report on impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (black carbon and methane) on snow and ice regions of the world.

Ms Elizabeth Masekoameng

Consultant, World Bank Group
Keynote Title: World Bank’s Pollution Management and Environmental program to stimulate evidence based air quality management in Africa

Elizabeth Masekoameng is a short term consultant to the World Bank Group and holds other positions in air quality management consulting. She has over 14 years’ experience in environmental management working with international and local organisations in private and public sectors. Most of these years were spent in the development, review and revision of air quality policies and legislation as well as development of national plans and strategies on air quality management.

Elizabeth started her tenure at the CSIR as a researcher where she led research projects involving environmental pollution, scenario planning and multicriteria decision making – with a number of published peer reviewed articles and book chapters. She is the former Director of Atmospheric Policy Regulations and Planning at the Department of Environmental affairs, a former Advisor on Air Quality Management and Climate Change Mitigation at GIZ, as well as an exiting member of the SO2 panel.